Nobel Prizes are an important topic of the General Awareness section of all the major Government and Banking Exams like UPSC, SSC-CGL, SEBI, IBPS, RRB, etc. every year. Questions have been asked about the winners and their inventions in all the fields viz Physics, Chemistry, Medicine, Literature, Peace and Economics. In this General Awareness Notes blog, we will be providing you with all the information you need to know about the 2018 Chemistry Nobel Prize. So, let us begin –
2018 Chemistry Nobel Prize: And the winners are…..
The 2018 Chemistry Nobel Prize is shared by 3 scientists – 2 from USA and 1 from UK. The first half was awarded to Frances H. Arnold (USA) and the second half was shared by George P. Smith (USA) and Sir Gregory P. Winter (UK).
2018 Chemistry Nobel Prize: About the Winners
Frances H. Arnold – She is a professor of chemical engineering at the California Institute of Technology. She was born in 1956 in Pittsburgh, USA. She completed her PhD from the University of California in 1985. She is only the 5th women in history to win a Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
George P. Smith – He is an emeritus professor of biological sciences at the University of Missouri. He was born in 1941 in USA. He had completed his PhD from Harvard University in 1970.
Gregory P. Winter – He is a biochemist at the M.R.C. Laboratory of Molecular Biology in England. He was born in 1951 in UK. He completed his PhD from Cambridge University in 1976.
2018 Chemistry Nobel Prize: Inventions
Frances H. Arnold was awarded the Chemistry Nobel for her work on the directed evolution of enzymes. The official press release by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has described her work in the following words – “In 1993, she conducted the first directed evolution of enzymes, which are proteins that catalyse chemical reactions. Since then, she has refined the methods that are now routinely used to develop new catalysts. The uses of Frances Arnold’s enzymes include more environmentally friendly manufacturing of chemical substances, such as pharmaceuticals, and the production of renewable fuels for a greener transport sector.”
George P. Smith and Sir Gregory P. Winter were jointly awarded the 2018 Chemistry Nobel Prize for their work on “the phage display of peptides and antibodies”. The official press release by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences has described their work in the following words – “In 1985, George Smith developed an elegant method known as phage display, where a bacteriophage – a virus that infects bacteria – can be used to evolve new proteins. Gregory Winter used phage display for the directed evolution of antibodies, with the aim of producing new pharmaceuticals. The first one based on this method, adalimumab, was approved in 2002 and is used for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel diseases. Since then, phage display has produced anti-bodies that can neutralise toxins, counteract autoimmune diseases and cure metastatic cancer.”
Also, check out the following blogs on Physics and Medicine Nobel Prize Winners –
That is all from us in this blog on 2018 Chemistry Nobel Prize. We hope you liked reading the information about the winners and their inventions provided above. We also hope that it is a valuable addition to your General Awareness notes for all the major Government and Banking Exams. All the best