This is the Free Polity Study Notes Blog covering the topic “Important Constitutional Amendments” for your IB Security Assistant 2018 Exam preparation. Questions have been asked on this topic in the previous IB Security Assistant Exams, therefore, these free Polity Study Notes would be very helpful for you. So, here we go -:
Important Constitutional Amendments – Free Polity Study Notes
Details of the Amendment
|1st Constitutional Amendment||1951||The most important change carried out by this amendment was the creation of the 9th schedule of the Indian Constitution to remove practical difficulties created by court decisions on acquisition of the Zamindari land, the scope of the fundamental right of the freedom of speech, trade and state monopoly etc.|
|4th Constitutional Amendment||1955||The 4th constitutional amendment act amended Article 31 and Art. 31A as a result individual could challenge the executive order in the court of law regarding the adequacy of the quantum of compensation paid for the compulsory acquisition of property for “public purpose”.|
|7th Constitutional Amendment||1956||Division of States on the Linguistic basis as per the States Reorganization Act 1956. It abolished the classification of States in A, B, C, D categories.|
|24th Constitutional Amendment||1971||Established the superiority of constitution amending powers of Parliament by amendments to the article 13 and article 368 overruling Golak Nath Case Ruling.|
|25th Constitutional Amendment||1971||Curtailed the Right to property by stating that laws relating to property cannot be challenged n the grounds of Equality.
Provided that any Law made to give effect to Directive Principles contained in article 39 (b) or (c) cannot be challenged on the grounds of violation of rights guaranteed under article 14, 19 and 31.
|26th Constitutional Amendment||1971||Abolished the Privy Purses of the erstwhile rulers of the Princely states (Art 291).|
|39th Constitutional Amendment||1975||The amendment inserted article 329A which was to establish a constitutional authority or a body to decide election disputes relating to the four high officials of the state. The President, The Prime Minister, The Vice President, the speaker. The main aim was to overrule the Allahabad High Court decision voiding the election of Indira Gandhi.|
|42nd Constitutional Amendment||1976||This amendment act is also known as the mini-constitution because of the higher number of articles which were amended and newly inserted by it. Some important articles inserted were – Art 32A, 131A, 144A, 51A, 128A, 257A, etc.
It established the primacy of DPSP over the Fundamental Rights
Words like Secular and Socialist were added to Indian Preamble.
|44th Constitutional Amendment||1978||By the 44th amendment Act, all the major changes brought about by the 42nd Amendment were repelled. Apart from them Right to property was declared as a Legal Right. Etc.|
|61st Constitutional Amendment||1988||Voting age was reduced from 21 years to 18 years for Lok Sabha assembly elections.|
|65th Constitutional Amendment||1990||Art. 338 was amended for the constitution of a National Commission for Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes consisting of a chairperson appointed by the president.|
|73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment||1992||These amendments constitutionalised the Urban and Rural Local bodies like Panchayats, Municipalities and Zilla Parishads. Schedule 11 and 12 were added to the constitution laying down the functionalities of these bodies.|
|77th Constitutional Amendment||1995||The act empowered the Central and State governments to make any provisions for reservation in promotions in Govt. jobs in favor of candidates from SC and ST communities. As a result, the SC judgment in Mondal Commission Case where the Court which held that reservations in promotions cannot be made was nullified.|
|80th Constitutional Amendment||2000||The amendment acted on the recommendations of the Tenth Finance Commission and implemented a system to simplify the tax structures by pooling and sharing all taxes between states and The Centre.|
|86th Constitutional Amendment||2002||The right to free and compulsory education for children between 6 to 14 years of age was declared as a fundamental right (Art 21 A)|
|93rd Constitutional Amendment||2005||The amendment allowed for the provision of providing 27% in all the government and private educational institutions for the Other Backward Classes (OBCs)|
|97th Constitutional Amendment||2012||Added the words “or co-operative societies” after the word “or unions” in Article 19(l)(c) and insertion of article 43B i.e., Promotion of Co-operative Societies and added Part-IXB i.e., The Co-operative Societies. (Wikipedia)|
|101st Constitutional Amendment||2016||was enacted for levy and collection of Goods and Services Tax (GST) in India. One Hundred and First Amendment of the Constitution of India inserted various new articles (246A, 269A, 279A) and amended various articles viz. 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366, 368 etc. (source – https://www.aubsp.com/101-amendment-constitution-india/)|
You may also like to read –
Free Polity Study Notes – Borrowed features of Indian Constitution
Free Polity Study Notes – Parts of Indian Constitution
Free Polity Study Notes – Schedules in Indian Constitution
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