# Reasoning Guide for Bank & Government Exams – Major topics with sample questions

Reasoning section is one of the tougher sections of various Bank and Government Exams. It has numerous question types, each having different concepts. To aid you with the preparation for Banks and Government exams, we have compiled a Reasoning Guide for you. In this Reasoning Guide, we have provided description and sample questions for major Reasoning Question types which are asked in all the banks and Government exams like etc.

Following are the topics which are generally covered in the REasoning Syllabus of Various Government and Banking Exams -:

•  Analogy
•  Coding-Decoding
•  Puzzles
•  Direction and Distance
•  Order and ranking
•  Syllogism
•  Blood relations
•  Seating arrangement
•  Inequalities
• Statement And Assumptions
• Statement and course of action
• Cause And Effect
• Statement And Argument

### Major topics with sample questions

#### Reasoning Guide: Analogy

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Analogy?

This is one of the important topics asked in Logical Reasoning section. Every Year 4-5 Questions are asked related to this topic. Analogy Reasoning Questions are based on comparisons. The Commission will give some pairs in the exam paper and you have to find out the similar pair of the given pair.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions:

Q1) Microphone : Loud :: Microscope : ?

(A) Elongate

(B) Investigate

(C) Magnify

(D) Examine

Answer: Option (C) – Magnify

As Microphone makes the sound louder similarly Microscope makes the object magnified.

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Q2) Peace : Chaos :: Creation : ?

(A) Build

(B) Construction

(C) Destruction

(D) Manufacture

Answer: Option (C) – Destruction

As opposite meaning of peace is chaos similarly opposite meaning of creation is destruction.

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#### Reasoning Guide: Logical Puzzles

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##### Reasoning Guide: What are Logical Puzzles?

These types of questions are very important for any banking exams. The problem contains a puzzle with 2 to 4 variables (more the variable, higher the difficulty). The key to solving these types of problem is understanding the scenario given in the question accurately and noting down all the details given in the question. These questions are all or nothing type, as in if you solve the puzzle you will surely solve all the 4-5 questions correctly and secure the marks, but if the puzzle is not solved correctly then all the attempted answers would be wrong.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Directions: Study the information given below and answer the questions that follow:

There is a family of six persons A, B, C, D, E and F. They are Lawyer, Doctor, Teacher, Salesman, Engineer and Accountant. There are two married couples in the family. D, the Salesman, is married to the Lady Teacher. The Doctor is married to the Lawyer. F, the Accountant, is the son of B and brother of E. C, the Lawyer, is the daughter-in-law of A. E is the unmarried Engineer. A is the grandmother of F.

Q1) How is E related to F?

(a) Brother

(b) Sister

(c) Cousin

(d) Cannot be determined

(e) None of these

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Q2) What is the profession of B?

(a) Teacher

(b) Doctor

(c) Lawyer

(d) Cannot be determined

(e) None of these

Q3) What is the profession of A?

(a) Lawyer

(b) Teacher

(c) Doctor

(d) Cannot be determined

(e) None of these

Q4) Which of the following is one of the couples?

(a) F and D

(b) D and B

(c) E and A

(d) A and C

(e) None of these

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Q5) How is D related to F?

(a) Grandfather

(b) Father

(c) Uncle

(d) Brother

(e) None of these

Answers – 1 –(d), 2 – (b), 3 – (b), 4 – (e) and 5 – (a)

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#### Reasoning Guide: Seating Arrangement

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Seating Arrangement?

There are usually 4-5 questions for one Sitting arrangement problem in SSC CGL Reasoning Section. So, if you master this topic you can easily pocket close to 10 marks. To master the topic, you would have to understand 2 types of information – Direct and Indirect. Direct information is clearly mentioned in the statements provided for any problem. Indirect Information is the information which is not clearly mentioned but it is required derived from the direct information statements.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Eight friends A, B, C, D, E, F, G and H are sitting in a circle facing the centre. B is sitting between G and D. H is third to the left of B and second to the right of A. C is sitting between A and G and B and E are not sitting opposite to each other.

Q1) Which of the following statements is not correct?

(a) C is third to the right of D.

(b) E is sitting between F and D.

(c) A is sitting between C and F.

(d) E and C are sitting opposite of each other.

Answer: Option (b)

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Q2) Who is third to the left of D?

(a) A

(b) E

(c) F

(d) None of these

Answer: Option (b)

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#### Reasoning Guide: Syllogism

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Reasoning Guide: What is Syllogism?

Syllogisms test your ability to reason. They are essentially statements which have a conclusion, but not all conclusions are true; your job is to find out which one really is and which ones ‘might’ be. This knowledge if obtained correctly can help you solve any syllogism question with ease. Here are some tips to follow when solving Syllogisms:

• Draw a Venn diagram; no Syllogism question should be attempted without a Venn diagram.
• When drawing a Venn diagram, pay close attention to the statements. There are four patterns in Syllogisms questions: (a) All A are B, (b) No A is B, (c) Some A are B, and (d) Some A are not B. Ensure that you know how to draw the Venn diagrams for each one pattern.
• Approach a Syllogism question in a process or sequence; each statement or phrase should correspond to a detail on the Venn diagram.
• About 4-5 questions from Syllogism topic are possible in any exam for SBI PO; knowing how to draw the Venn diagram will be quite helpful towards ensuring that those questions are correctly answered.
##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Q1) Statements:

Some dress are covers.

All covers are papers.

All papers are bags.

Conclusions:

1. All covers are bags.
2. Some bags are covers, papers and dress.

III. Some dress are not papers.

(a) Only I follows

(b) Only I and II follow

(c) Only III follows

(d) All I, II and III follow

Answer: Option b

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#### Reasoning Guide: Data Sufficiency

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Data Sufficiency?

Data Sufficiency problems usually take the form of a logical puzzle and are in the form of a question followed by two statements. You need to answer whether you can solve the problem using the statements individually, or using both, or whether you cannot solve the problem using the information provided.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Q1) How many candidates were interviewed every day by the panel A out of the three panels A, B and C?

I.The three panels on average interview 15 candidates every day.

II.Out of a total of 45 candidates interviewed every day by the three panels, the number of candidates interviewed by panel A is more by 2 than the candidates interviewed by panel c and is more by 1 than the candidates interviewed by panel B.

(a) I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer

(b) II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer

(c) Either I or II alone sufficient to answer

(d) Both I and II are not sufficient to answer

Answer: Option (b)

Explanation:

1. Total candidates interviewed by 3 panels = (15 x 3) = 45.
2. Let x candidates be interviewed by C.

Number of candidates interviewed by A = (x + 2).

Number of candidates interviewed by B = (x + 1).

x + (x + 2) + (x + 1) = 45

3x = 42

x = 14

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Q2) What is the Teacher’s age in the class?

1. The age of the teacher is as many years as the number of children.
2. Average age is increased by 1 year if the teacher’s age is also included.

(a) I alone sufficient while II alone not sufficient to answer

(b) II alone sufficient while I alone not sufficient to answer

(c) Either I or II alone sufficient to answer

(d) Both I and II are not sufficient to answer

(e) Both I and II are necessary to answer

Answer: Option (d)

Explanation:

Let there be x children.

I gives, age of teacher = x years.

II gives, average age of (x + 1) persons = (x + 1) years.

Teacher’s age = (x + 1) (x + 1) – x2 = (x2 + 1 + 2x) – x2 = (1 + 2x)

Thus, teacher’s age cannot be obtained.

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#### Reasoning Guide: Coding-decoding

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Coding-decoding?

Coding is an important type of reasoning questions. In this section, codes will be used to designate or represent a word and we need to identify the pattern of the code. Some logic will be there behind each coding.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Q1) If code P is denoted by 7, X by 9, M by 5, Z by 8, L by 2, T by 1, then ZLTPXM will be

Options:

1. a) 812851
2. b) 821591
3. c) 812715
4. d) 821795

Correct Answer: Option (d) 821795

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Q2) In in a certain code, RAT = 39 and CHAT = 32, then how will you code TWITTER?

Options:

1. a) 111
2. b) 112
3. c) 114
4. d) 115

Correct Answer. Option (d) – 115

Solution. A = 1, B = 2, ……, Z = 26.

So, TWITTER = 20+23+9+20+20+5+18 = 115.

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#### Reasoning Guide: Blood Relation

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Blood Relation?

In Blood Relations, certain information is given in the question about the members of the family. Candidates are asked to identify how a person is related to another person based the given information.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Q1) Pointing to a lady Ravi said,” She is the only daughter of the father of my sister’s brother”. How is she related to Ravi?

Options:

(a) Mother

(b) Aunt

(c) Sister

(d) Niece

Answer: Option (c)

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Q2) Pointing to a man in the photograph, a Woman says,” His mother’s only daughter is my mother”. How is man related to woman?

Options:

(a) Maternal Uncle

(b) Paternal Uncle

(c) Brother

(d) Cousin

Answer: Option (a)

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#### Reasoning Guide: Order and Ranking

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Order and Ranking?

In ordering and ranking arrangement questions, position/rank of a person from left-right/top-bottom of a row/class is to be determined or rank/position is given & total no. of persons is to be calculated. You may also be asked to determine, using data given, which floor which person lives on.

1) Read the statement line by line and apply the cases as explained below.

2) Position can be from either sides of row and rank is always from top or bottom of the row

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Q1) A class of boys stands in a single line. One boy is nineteenth in order from both the ends. How many boys are there in the class?

Options

(a) 27

(b) 37

(c) 38

(d) 39

Answer: Option (b)

Solution. Clearly, number of boys in the row = (18 + 18 + 1) = 37

The question can be solved by formula also, total number of boys in the row = 19 + 19 – 1 = 37

Formula Total number of persons in a row or class = (Rank of a person from upper end or left end) + (Rank of that person from lower or right end) – 1

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Q2) In a row of boys facing North, Rinku is 10th to the left to Pink who is 21st from the right end. If Miku who is 17th from the left end, is 4th to the right of Rinku, then how many boys are there in the row?

Options:

1. a) Data inadequate
2. b) 44
3. c) 37
4. d) 43

Answer: Option (d)

Given, →Pink is 21st from the right end and Rinku is 10th to the left of Pink

→ So, Rinku is 31st (i.e., 21 + 10) from the right end.

→ Miku is 17th from the left end and 4th to the right of Rinku.

→ So, Rinku’s position from the left end with respect to Miku = 14th

→ Total number of boys = Position of Rinku from R.H.S + Position of Rinku from L.H.S – 1

= 31 + 14 – 1 = 43

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#### Reasoning Guide: Alpha Numeric Symbol Series

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Alpha Numeric Symbol Series?

You will be given a series of numbers, symbols with a mix of alphabets based on a pattern. The series may also be based only on numbers or only on alphabets. The more you practice, the easier it is for you to identify the pattern hidden in the series.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Q1) How many symbols are there which are immediately preceded by a number and immediately followed by a letter?

5 8 # B F L E 4 * M J 9 G N 2 W 3 + S 4 ? \$ P Q 6 R 7 & H T

Options:

1. a) 2
2. b) 3
3. c) 4
4. d) 5
5. e) None of these

Answer: Option (c).

Q2) Study the following letter – number sequence to answer these questions:

E & G B D M 4 N K H 2 A C Z S V 3 F 1 J L O Q 5 P R

What will come in place of question mark in the following sequence?

G D R   B M P   D 4 5?

Options:

1. a) M N Q
2. b) 4 N Q
3. c) M K O
4. d) M 4 Q
5. e) None of these

Answer: Option (a)

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#### Reasoning Guide: Inequalities

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Inequalities?

In this type of questions, mathematical symbols like >, <, =, ≤, ≥, etc are used to show relationships among different numbers, equations, letters, etc. and based on these we need to solve or prove the given equations.

##### Reasoning Guide: Sample Questions

Q1) Which of the following expressions is true if the expression B=D≤A>F≥E≥C is definitely true?

(a) A ≤ B

(b) B < F

(c) F = C

(d) A > C

Answer: Option (d)

Q2) In which of the following expressions does the expression ‘Q≥R’ to definitely hold true?

(a) T ≥ R ≤ P = Q < S ≤ U

(b) S ≥ T ≥ U = P ≤ R ≥ Q

(c) Q ≥ S > U ≥ P = R ≤ T

(d) Q ≥ S = T < P ≤ R ≤ U

Answer: Option (a)

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#### Reasoning Guide: Cause and Effect

##### Reasoning Guide: What is Cause and Effect?

The main aim of cause and effect questions is to derive the relationship between two given statements in the question. the key is to understanding whetaher the 2 statements are realted, and if yes how are they related.

Q1) Statements:

I – The prices of petrol and diesel in the domestic market have remained unchanged for the past few months.

II – The crude oil prices in the international market have gone up substantially in the last few months.

(a) Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

(b) Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

(c) Both the statements I and II are independent causes

(d) Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

(e) Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer – Option (d)

Explanation: The prices of petrol and diesel being stagnant in the domestic market and the increase in the same in the international market must be backed by independent causes.

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Q2) Statements:

I – The Reserve Bank of India has recently put restrictions on few small banks in the country.

II – The small banks in the private and co-operative sector in India are not in a position to withstand the competitions of the bigger in the public sector.

(a) Statement I is the cause and statement II is its effect

(b) Statement II is the cause and statement I is its effect

(c) Both the statements I and II are independent causes

(d) Both the statements I and II are effects of independent causes

(e) Both the statements I and II are effects of some common cause

Answer – Option (b)

Explanation: The inability of the small banks to compete with the bigger ones shall not ensure security and good service to the customers, which is an essential concomitant that has to be looked into by the Reserve Bank. It seems to be a remedial step for the same.

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This brings us to the end of our blog – Reasoning Guide for Bank and Government Exams. We hope you find the information provided in this reasoning guide useful for your exam preparation

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