SBI 2018 [Concept Video]। बेईमान व्यापारी। लाभ और हानि अवधारणाओं को जानें।

SBI PO परीक्षा में लाभ और हानि से संबंधित प्रश्न अनेक उम्मीदवारों के लिए दर्द-बिंदु है। विशेष रूप से, बेईमान व्यापरी प्रकार से संबंधित प्रश्न। हालांकि युक्तियों को समझने के पश्चात, जब एक बार आप अवधारणाओं को समझ लेते हैं, तो इन प्रश्नों के अंक आपके हैं!

निम्नलिखित वीडियो उस अवधारणा को लक्षित करता है और हल किए उदाहरण की सहायता से आप स्पष्ट समझ को स्थापित कर सकेंगे।

इस लेख में, हम आपके लिए लाए हैं:

  • विस्तृत नोट्स
  • सूत्र
  • कुछ शाॅर्ट-कट

इस विषय हेतु लाभ और हानि पर प्रश्नों का त्वरित हल करने के लिए, इसे साथ पढ़ें

SBI 2018: लाभ एवं हानि अवधारणाएं। बेईमान व्यापरी। प्रश्न प्रकार। वीडियो

 

ओलिवबोर्ड के साथ नए वीडियो क्रैश कोर्स से,

  • अपने बेसिक्स का निर्माण करें
  • विशेषज्ञों के साथ प्रश्नों को हल करें
  • कहीं भी, कभी भी अध्ययन करें

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SBI 2018: लाभ एवं हानि अवधारणाएं । मूल परिभाषाएं। नोट्स

  • क्रय मूल्य (CP) : वह मूल्य जिस पर विक्रेता उत्पाद खरीदता है।
  • विक्रय मूल्य (SP): वह मूल्य जिस पर विक्रेता आपको या ग्राहक को उत्पाद बेचता है।
  • अंकित मूल्य (MP): यह उत्पाद पर प्रदर्शित मूल्य है। (इसे MRP भी कहते हैं।)
  • लाभ(P): जबकि SP > CP,  विक्रेता लाभ कमाता है।

P = SP – CP ; P% = ( P / CP ) x 100

  • हानि (L): जबकि SP < CP, विक्रेता को हानि होती है।

L = CP – SP ; L% = ( P / CP ) x 100

याद रखें कि लाभ और हानि दोनों की हमेशा उत्पाद के क्रय मूल्य पर गणना की जाती है।

छूट (D): अंकित मूल्य (MP) पर विक्रेता द्वारा दी गई रियायत को छूट कहा जाता है।

SBI 2018: हानि और लाभ अवधारणाएं । महत्वपूर्ण संबंध । नोट्स

उपकरेक्त सेक्शन में उल्लेखित सभी शर्तें एक-दूसरे से बहुत विशिष्ट तरीकों से संबंधित हैं। निम्नलिखित प्रदर्शन इन कनेक्शनों को समझने में आपकी सहायता करेगा और आपके भ्रम को सुलझाएगा |

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SP = MP – छूट

मार्कअप = MP – CP;  मार्कअप%  =  [ ( MP – CP ) / CP ] x 100

याद रखें कि छूट प्रतिशत की हमेशा उत्पाद के अंकित मूल्य (MP) पर गणना होती है।

SBI 2018: लाभ एवं हानि अवधारणाएं । विशेष स्थितियों के लिए शाॅर्ट-कट। नोट्स

  • किसी भी वस्तु पर दो लगातार लाभ या हानि के लिए, परिणामी लाभ/हानि प्रतिशत के लिए सूत्र हैः

x + y + ( xy / 100)

ध्यान दें: दोनों  ‘x’  और ‘y’, यहां लाभ/हानि प्रतिशत हैं, जैसा कि प्रश्न में दिया है। लाभ के लिए + चिन्ह और हानि के लिए – चिन्ह है। यदि परिणाम + में आता है तो कुल लाभ होता है, यदि परिणाम – में आता है तो कुल हानि होती है।

किसी वस्तु पर दो से अधिक लाभ और हानि के लिए, परिणामी लाभ / हानि प्रतिशत के लिए सूत्र लागू किया जाता है।

  • यदि दो वस्तुएं, जिनकी CP समान है, इस प्रकार बेची जाती हैं कि एक x% के लाभ पर है जबकि दूसरी x% की हानि पर है। तो फिर पूरे लेनदेन में, विक्रेता को न तो हानि का सामना करना पड़ता है और न ही वह लाभ प्राप्त करता है।
  • हालांकि, यदि समान SP के साथ दो वस्तुओं को बेचा जाता है जिसमें एक को x% प्रतिशत लाभ होता है जबकि दूसरी का x% हानि होती है। तो फिर संपूर्ण लेन-देन में, विक्रेता को हानि होती है, जो कि निम्नलिखित सूत्र द्वारा दी जाती है:

समग्र हानि% = x^2 / 100  [उभयनिष्ठ लाभ या हानि प्रतिशत का वर्ग / 100]

अभी ही लाभ और हानि पर एक त्वरित टेस्ट लें।

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शुभकामनाएं!!


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