TNPSC has released its annual planner 2022. Notifications of various group exams can be expected as per schedule. Economy carries a significant weightage in most of the TN exams. To help you in your preparation, we have come up with a study blog on the topic of Human development Indicators to help you in your preparation.
Table of Contents
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Human Development Indicators e-book
Growth and Development
In economic terms, both growth and development refer to changes over a period of time. But the difference lies in the approach used to measure them.
- Economic growth measures the increase in goods and services produced in an economy over a period of time.
- For instance, it measures the growth in National income or Industrial output of an economy.
- Hence, it is a quantitative change.
- Some of the indicators used to measure Economic growth are,
- National income
- Per capita income
- Per capita GDP
- Economic development has two different approaches,
- Traditional approach
- New welfare-oriented approach
- In the traditional approach, the development of a country was measured in terms of its economic growth.
- The bigger the economy of a country, the more developed it was considered.
- For instance, if the per capita income is high it means the level of economic development is also high and vice versa.
- It links human development with the level of income.
- In the welfare approach, the measurement of Economic development takes into account the output of an economy along with improvement in the standard of living of its citizens.
- Economic development is a qualitative measure that measures improvement in technology, labour reforms and rising living standards, etc.,
- It focuses more on socioeconomic factors rather than economic growth in terms of income.
|Economic growth||Economic development|
|It is a positive quantitative change in the output of an economy in a particular period.||It considers a rise in output along with rising in living standards, advancement in technology and the overall happiness index of a nation.|
|Narrower concept.||Wider concept. Development= Growth + Standard of living|
|Quantitative measure E.g. Increase in per capita income.||Quantitative as well as qualitative E.g. Health, Education, etc.,|
|It may not require government intervention or support.||It is highly dependent on government intervention to improve the standard of living of the citizens|
Human Development is a concept about the thriving of human life, it is an approach that focuses on the people and the opportunities they have.
Human development is about providing more freedom and opportunity to the people for a living and making people able to improve and use their capabilities.
Various approaches to Human development
|Income Approach||This is the oldest approach to human development. It links human development with income. The rise in income is considered a rise in the development of an individual.|
|Welfare Approach||This approach considers human beings as beneficiaries of all development activities. It argues for higher government spending on health, education, and other social amenities. Here the government is responsible for increasing levels of human development.|
|Basic needs Approach||This approach identifies six basic needs- health, education, food, water supply, sanitation, and housing. It was first proposed by the International Labour Organization (ILO).|
|Capability Approach||This approach was developed by Prof. Amartya Sen. It proposes that building human capabilities in the areas of health, education, and access to resources is the key to human development.|
Measurement of Development:
Human Development Index(HDI)
- The HDI was created by the Pakistani-based economist Mahbub-ul-Haq in 1990.
- It is a composite index that ranks the countries based on three core dimensions of human development:
- Standard of living
- Each dimension is given a weightage of 1/3. Thus the HDI is a sum total of the weights assigned to all these dimensions.
- The rank for the countries is based on a score of 0 to 1. Closer the score to 1, the greater is the level of human development.
- The United Nations Development Program (UNDP) Publishes HDI for all countries as part of its Human Development Report (HDR) annually since 1990.
|Health||Life expectancy at Birth (Years).|
|Education||Expected years of schooling for a school-age child. Mean years of prior schooling for adults aged 25 and older.|
|Standard of Living||GDP per capita (PPP US $)|
Performance of India
- India ranks at 131 out of 189 countries on the Human development index 2020.
- It is placed under the ‘Medium human development’ category with an HDI value of 0.645.
|Level of Human Development||Score in Development index|
|Very High||Above 0.800|
|High||Between 0.700 up to 0.799|
|Medium||Between 0.550 up to 0.699|
- India’s HDI is more than the South Asian region’s average value of 0.631
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