The CTET exam is one of the very popular exams among the aspirants. Those who are aspiring to get a prestigious job as a teacher undergo this exam. Lakhs of candidates every year appear for this exam and give their best. The syllabus of CTET includes an important section of Child pedagogy which refers to an individual’s understanding of an effective approach to teaching. To help you prepare this section, we are going to provide you with free study notes on one of the topics – Influence of Heredity & Environment.
Let’s dive in get a better understanding of the topic and how it affects a human’s growth.
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- 1. Heredity & Environment – An Introduction
- 2. Laws of Heredity – A Brief Description
- 3. Principles of Heredity
- 4. Environment – Types & Effect
- 5. Important of Heredity & Environment
1. Heredity & Environment – An Introduction
The development of a human is based on various factors, two of which are most defining for an individual – Heredity & Environment.
These 2 parameters define how we grow and how we turn out to be. A debate on the importance of Heredity & Environment is often conducted and is very prominent.
Over time the studies have shown that we are part & parcel of the combination of both these. It is also often debated that which factor influences more.
Heredity is the science where we study the impacts of genetic factors on our behavior and development. How they are transmitted from one generation to another and how they impact the human.
While Environment includes every other thing except the heredity factors. An environment is constituted by the factors present on the surrounding in which an individual is growing up. The peer group, education are also factored in the environmental factors.
There are certain laws under Heredity by which the behavior and the attitude of an individual are formed. Let’s move ahead and have a look at them.
2. Laws of Heredity – A Brief Description
There are a total of 3 laws that define the heredity and its implications:
2.1 Law of Similarity
In this law, the offsprings are an exact replica of their parents. Children of intelligent parents are born intelligent while the child of a dull parent of born dull. In this case, the offspring products are hugely similar to their previous generations.
2.2 Law of Variations
Under this law, the offsprings are genetically varied from their parents. It has no guarantee that all the advancements of the parents are being transferred into their children. This all depends upon the genes transfer from parents to their children.
2.3 Law of Regressions
It is often observed that children are the exact opposite of their parents’ nature and behavior. This is categorized under the law of regression. This factor again is based on the genetic transfer from parents to their offsprings. The genes of commonality do not lapse and have a chance of being transferred in future generations.
There are certain principles that are derived for the influence of Heredity.
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3. Principles of Heredity
3.1 Law of Continuity of Germplasms
This principle indicates that any temporary deformity in the living being does not affect the upcoming generations. This experiment was performed on 25 generations of the mouse where their tail was cut but every time the next generation was born with a tail.
This showed that germ cells are not impacted by the environment. While somatic cells are transferred to the next generations, the germ cells are not transferred.
3.2 Theory of Mendal
Johann Gregor Mendall said that nature always maintains a balance. If a certain feature is not visible in the offsprings of a couple, that does not mean it is lost. Those genes are still alive and may show their impact on future generations.
3.3 Theory of Galton’s Biometric
Galton suggested that not all the specifications of an individual are received from the parents to an individual but also many times they are being inherited by the ancestors. This theory included qualities being transferred from grandfather/grandmother or paternal grandfathers/grandmothers.
3.4 Theory of Darwin
Darwin suggests that often the changes on the future generations is because of the changes that are being observed in the environments and that impacts an individual and his personality. Often these picked up habits are transferred to the coming generations.
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4. Environment – Types & Effect
The environment is an external factor that affects us present in our surroundings. Apart from genetic factors, environmental factors also play a major role in the natural formation of an individual.
4.1 Types of Environment
Ther are basically 2 types of environment: Internal Environment & External Environment.
The external environment is further divided into 2 types namely: Physical environment (air, trees, animals, etc.) and Social environment (peer group, unknown people, etc.).
4.2 Effects of Environment
Effects of an environment can be discussed on various factors:
- Mental Ability
- Thought Process
- Individual Personality
5. Important of Heredity & Environment
- Awareness of a Child’s Heredity & Environment is important for teachers to understand their students.
- A balanced development for a child.
- It helps the teacher to provide a better learning environment in the school.
- It helps the teacher to know the principle of individual differences and arrange the educational experience accordingly.
- It helps the teacher to study the behavior of the children in different situations.
We hope our CTET study notes on Heredity & Environment proves useful to you. This will help you develop a clear understanding of the topic.
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