Important Amendments to Indian Constitution – Indian Polity Notes

Indian Constitution was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on 26 November 1949 and officially became effective on 26 January 1950. In this blog, we will see some of the most important amendments to the Indian constitution and its features. Amendments to the Indian Constitution are made according to the needs of the time but the Constitution has remained intact and its basic premises have not changed. Judiciary plays an important role in protecting the Constitution and also in interpreting the Constitution whenever required.

Here are the most prominent amendments to the Indian Constitution — ranging from fundamental rights to exchanging control over international land — including their history and the lasting impact they’ve left on India.

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Important Amendments to Indian Constitution

 Amendments Features
 1st Amendment, 1950
  1. Provided for several new grounds of restrictions on the right to freedom of speech and expression.
  2. Right to practice any profession or to carry on any trade or business as contained in Article 19 of the Constitution
  3. The Ninth Schedule along with Articles 31A and 31B were inserted in the Constitution to protect laws, such as the land reform and other laws, from being challenged in the court son the ground of violation of fundamental rights.
  4. The amendment also made changes in articles 5, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376.
 7th Amendment, 1956
  1. States and union territories were introduced.
  2. Composition of the House of the People and its re-adjustment after every census
  3. Establishment of new High Courts, High Court Judges etc.
 10th Amendment, 1961 Included areas of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory
11th  Amendment, 1961 Proposed that election of President or Vice President could not be challenged on the ground of any vacancy in the appropriate electoral college.
12th Amendment, 1962Included Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory and to amend Article 240 for the purpose.
13th  Amendment, 1962Nagaland was formed with an agreement between Government of India and Naga People’s Convention.
14th Amendment, 1962
  1. Pondicherry was included in the First Schedule as a Union Territory
  2. Creation of Legislature by Parliamentary law for Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Tripura, Goa, Daman and Diu and Pondicherry
22nd Amendment, 1969New autonomous state of Meghalaya with in the state of Assam.
24th Amendment, 1971Removed all doubts regarding the power of Parliament to amend the Constitution including the Fundamental Rights.
31st Amendment, 1973Raised the upper limit for the representation of states in the Lok Sabha from 500 to 525 and reduced the upper limit for the representation of union territories from 25 members to 20.
35th Amendment, 1974Conferred Sikkim the status of an associate State of Indian Union.
36th Amendment, 1975Made Sikkim a full-fledged State of Indian Union and to include it in the First Schedule to the Constitution
42nd Amendment, 1976
  • Ideals of socialism, secularism and the integrity of the nation were adopted
  • Directive Principles were given precedence over  Fundamental Rights
  • Inserted a new chapter on the Fundamental Duties of citizens
  • Two-third was set as the minimum number of judges for determining question as to the constitutional validity of law
  •  Administrative and other tribunals for speedy disposal of service matters, revenue matters and certain other matters of special importance in the context of socio-economic development and progress.
44th Amendment, 1978
  •  Right to property from the list of fundamental rights and made it a legal right
  • Provided “armed rebellion” as one of the circumstances for declaration of emergency
  • Article 134A was inserted to provide that a High Court should consider the question of granting a certificate for appeal to Supreme Court immediately after the delivery of the judgement
52nd Amendment, 1985Suitable provisions were made with respect to splits in and merger of political parties.
53rd Amendment, 1986Mostly revolved around the state of Mizoram. Legislative Assembly of Mizoram shall consist of not less than 40 members.
55th Amendment, 1986Conferred statehood on the Union Territory of Arunachal Pradesh
56th Amendment, 1987Union Territory of Daman and Diu and the formation of the state of Goa.
61st Amendment, 1989Reduction of the voting age from 21 to 18 years by amending Article 326
66th Amendment, 1990Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh,Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, TamilNadu, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal and administration of the Union Territory of Puducherry were added to the Ninth Schedule (relating to land reforms and ceiling on agricultural land holdings)
69th Amendment, 1991Union territory of Delhi was renamed as the National Capital Territory of Delhi
70th Amendment, 1992Included the elected members of the legislative assemblies of union territories in the electoral college for the election of the President under Article 54 of the Constitution.
71st Amendment, 1992Included Konkani, Manipuri and Nepali languages in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.
73rd Amendment, 1993Gave constitutional status to the Panchayati Raj Institutions
74th Amendment, 1993 Provisions for local administrative bodies in urban areas such as towns and cities were added.
86th Amendment, 2002Article 21A deals with Right to Education that “the State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of the age of six to fourteen years”
87th Amendment, 20032001 national census population figures were to be used for state-wise distribution of parliamentary seats.
91st Amendment, 2003Restricts the sizeof the Council of Ministers in the Union Government and in a State Government to fifteen percent of the total number of legislative members.
92st Amendment, 2003Bodo, Dogri, Santali and Maithali were added as official languages to the 8th Schedule
94th Amendment, 2006Minister of Tribal Welfare was proposed in newly created states of Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.
100th Amendment, 2015Acquiring of territories by India and transfer of territories to Bangladesh through retaining of adverse possession and exchange of enclaves, in pursuance of the agreement between India and Bangladesh concerning the demarcation of the land boundary.
101st Amendment, 2017Introduction of “The Goods and Services Tax (GST)” and provision of compensation to states for loss of revenue on account of introduction of goods and services tax. Addition of articles 246A, 269A, 279A. Deletion of Article 268A.
Amendment of articles 248, 249, 250, 268, 269, 270, 271, 286, 366, 368, Sixth Schedule, Seventh Schedule.
102nd Amendment, 2018Constitutional status to National Commission for Backward Classes. Addition of articles 338B, 342A, and Added Clause 26C.Modification of articles 338, 366
103rd Amendment, 2019A maximum of 10% Reservation for Economically Weaker Sections (EWSs) of citizens of classes other than the classes mentioned in clauses (4) and (5) of Article 15, i.e. Classes other than socially and educationally backward classes of citizens or the Scheduled Castes and the Scheduled Tribes. Inserted Clause [6] under Article 15 as well as Inserted Clause [6] under Article 16.
104th Amendment, 2020To extend the reservation of seats for SCs and STs in the Lok Sabha and states assemblies from Seventy years to Eighty years. Removed the reserved seats for the Anglo-Indian community in the Lok Sabha and state assemblies. Amend article 334.

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