The Climate of India – Study Notes for JK Exams

The Climate of India: India is a land of varied climates and seasons. Climates and seasons are an important part of geographical studies for competitive exams. In this blog, we will be looking at the study notes on climates of India which will be beneficial for aspirants of JK Exams.

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Climate of India

India is a big country as per the area and is home to different types of weather due to the varied topography and the vast geographical scale. Although the climate of India is described as a monsoon type, there are certain regional variations in the climate which are known as subtypes.

Based on the Köppen system, there are eight major climatic sub-types in India. Let us have a look at all the eight climatic sub-types prevalent in India.

Climate typeRegions of India
Tropical Savannah Most of the peninsular plateaus
Tropical monsoon with short dry seasonWest coast of India, south of Goa.
Tropical moistCoromandel coast of Tamil Nadu
Semi-Arid steppeNorth-western Gujarat, parts of Rajasthan and Punjab.
Hot desertExtreme western Rajasthan
Monsoon with dry wintersGanga plain, eastern Rajasthan, northern Madhya Pradesh, most of north-east India.
Cold humid winter with short summer Arunachal Pradesh.
Polar typeJammu & Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttarakhand.

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Seasons in India

There are 4 types of seasons classified in India as per the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD) and they are:

Winter or The Cold Weather Season

The Winter season starts in India from the months of December to February. The coldest months of winter are December and January. Temperatures during the winters vary from 10-15°C in north India, there is an increase in the temperatures as one moves towards the equator. The temperatures in mainland India fall in the region of 20-25°C.

One of the most important characteristics of the winter season is that there is an inflow of cyclonic disturbances that originate in the Mediterranean Sea and travel eastwards toward West Asia.

These winds after travelling over Iran Afghanistan and Pakistan arrive at the northwest part of India and cause rainfall and the formation of snow. The amount of rain received is less but is of high significance as they are helpful for the cultivation of Rabi Crops.

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Summer or The Hot Weather Season

In contrast to the cold season, the summer season is very hot, the summer season starts from March and lasts till May. Some parts of India experience severe heatwave during the summer months and temperatures may reach 45 degrees and above in such regions.

The temperature in peninsular India remains within 20-32°C due to the influence of the oceans. The temperatures in the Western ghats range in the mid 20’s.

The characteristic feature of summer season is loo, these are strong dry and hot winds that blow in the North and northwest India in the regions of Delhi, Punjab, Haryana and eastern Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh.

The dust storms are accompanied by light to heavy rain and are helpful for the cultivation of rice, jute and tea.

During the end of summer season, the states of Kerala and Karnataka experience pre-monsoon rains which are known as “mango showers” as they are helpful for the ripening of mango.

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Rainy Season or Advancing Monsoon Season

This is the season of advancing monsoon or the South West Monsoon. The months of the rainy season are from June to September. The low-pressure situations in the northwest plains of India get more intensified due to the rise in temperature and this low pressure attracts the southeast trade winds.

These trade winds after crossing the equator follow a south-westerly direction and are hence named as South West Monsoons. These winds pick up moisture from the low-pressure regions of Bay of Bengal and the Arabian Sea causing heavy rainfall in the states of Kerala, Karnataka, Goa and Maharashtra.

There is also rains in the other parts of India. The winds cause heavy rainfall in West Bengal and Assam along with Bangladesh as they are deflected by the Arakan range in the coast of Myanmar.

This season is very important for the agricultural point of view as they make up for three fourth of the rains in the whole year in India.

Autumn or Retreating Monsoon Season

This season falls in the month of October and November. During these months, the sun moves towards the south and as a result, the low-pressure intensity decreases in the northwest.

The result of the decrease in intensity is that the low-pressure system is gradually replaced by the high-pressure system and weakening the southwest monsoon.

The withdrawal of the southwest monsoon is marked by rise in temperature and clear skies throughout India. The heat also rises during the day and this phenomenon is called October Heat.

During the end of October, the low pressure created in north western gets transferred to the Bay of Bengal and this coupled with the origination of cyclonic depressions in Andaman causes heavy rainfall and cyclones. These cyclones are highly destructive in nature.

The regions that receive this intense rainfall and cyclone are the coastal areas of the Godavari, Cauvery and Krishna. These winds may also reach the coasts of West Bengal, and Odisha and cause destruction.

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