Logical and Analytical Reasoning for KAS, PSI, and Other Competitive Exams

This blog is a collection of logical reasoning content, puzzles, and resources to help you improve your reasoning skills. We aim to provide the highest quality logical reasoning content so that you can ace your exam with these tips. Apart from logical reasoning, this blog also contains tips and information regarding Analytical reasoning. Various competitive exams like KAS PSI and other exams have at least one question from this section. This blog helps you to understand logical and analytical reasoning and helps you to solve the problems based on that. E-books on other subjects of mental ability are also available on the Olive board website and you can download them for free. 

Reasoning 

The reasoning is nothing but thinking straightly, to come to any conclusion you need to apply that basic knowledge you have which we call logical reasoning. And to make even the best conclusions we try analytical reasoning by challenging our thinking ability. Reasoning can also be called “Rationality” sometimes. Reasoning has close relation with human activities like Philosophy, Science, Mathematics, etc. Humans are the only animals that are capable of thinking correctly.

Reasoning is associated with thoughts and knowledge. This challenges our thinking ability. We can divide reasoning into many different types such as. Verbal Reasoning, Non-verbal Reasoning, Analytical Reasoning, Logical Reasoning, etc. 

We can come to a conclusion with two perspectives;

Subjective 

In this way, you think from your point of view. Some things might be right from a broader perspective but when it is your opinion, you feel it is totally wrong. For example, you hate wars but you can’t generalize that opinion as it depends on the situation.

Objective

Here in this way you have no space for your personal opinion or your point of view, no matter what your personal opinion or belief is you should never let that affect your conclusion. For example, if you are a historian and you hate a particular king, you can’t just mention his wrongdoings. You have to equally mention his other contributions as well. Your purpose is more important than your own opinion. Having an objective approach to the situation is suggested to the public servants. 

We can’t argue what is right or what is wrong. It is totally dependent upon the given situation. To make conclusions you have to decide according to the requirements of given circumstances

Second by understanding the information given, 

Synthesis 

In this method you gather some information or components to come to a conclusion. For example, we know that fruits and vegetables contain vitamins and minerals, and you know that Kiwi is a fruit. You gather these two pieces of information to conclude that Kiwi has vitamins and minerals. 

Analytical 

This is contradictory to the synthesis, you separate the given information to get to the conclusion. For example, if the statement is given as most fruit and vegetables contain vitamins and minerals, and then that Kiwi is a fruit, you separate these two and then add kiwi to the first statement to conclude that kiwi contains vitamins and minerals. 

Logical Reasoning 

As we already discussed, reasoning indeed challenges our thinking ability. We always wonder about the things that go on around us. We try to understand and give explanations for the things that happen around us. For instance, consider that if you see a fake snake made of plastic at first you will definitely feel frightened but then you keenly observe that it is not real. But on the basis of what? You know that if it was real it would’ve moved, right? This process of applying the existing knowledge and then deciding is what we call a logical application. The only difficult thing is that we have to apply the already-knowing things to the given situation correctly. 

What is Logic?

Where is the logic behind that? We all have questioned this at least once in our life. Whenever Actors sustain bullets without any practical explanation, we say where is the logic. Isn’t it? Because you know that sustaining bullets is not as easy as they show. You applied that knowledge to the situation within no time. Just this application of basic simple knowledge to the given instance to make valid conclusions.

Applying the basic principles of reasoning to make conclusions makes them clear without giving any chance to obscurity. The purpose of reason is to test the way you think, how you make decisions, and how you will defend your opinion. In some cases, you might need to think from your perspective and sometimes you don’t have to, according to the situation you should decide whether to think from your point of view or not. Some situations expect you to be subjective and sometimes objective. 

Logical Reasoning is mainly divided into two categories. 

  • Deductive Logical Reasoning 
  • Inductive Logical Reasoning 

Deductive Logical Reasoning 

Premise: All cats have long ears

Premise: Cornish Rex is a cat

Conclusion: So, Carnish has long ears

In Deductive reasoning, if the given premises are true then the given conclusion is also true. Hence the conclusions are not as general as premises. In this given example all cats have long ears. And Cornish Rex is a cat. By the way, it is given that we can say that cats are born with long ears and hence we can definitely conclude that Cornish Rex has long ears. Conclusions drawn based on the given premises are correct but not true. If any one of the premises is wrong or false then the conclusion is also false. Deductive reasoning is similar to analytical thinking. Analytical means separating the given information into its constituent elements to understand it better. This Deductive Logical Reasoning is further divided into 2 sections 

  • Immediate 
  • Mediate or Syllogism

Immediate Inference or Immediate Reasoning 

In this section, conclusions are made based upon only one statement. We can come to a conclusion here with two methods. Let’s see with an example.

Implication: 

If we consider the given premise (A) is true then the conclusion (I) is also considered to be true. Remember If the premises are true then,

PremiseConclusion 
All Sofas are a bed (A)Some sofas are a bed (I)
No sofa is a bed (E)Some sofas are not the bed (O)

In the above-given example, we can conclude that some sofas are bed, because we know simply that Some are always a part of All. So when all sofas are bed then some sofas are bed. Likewise, when no sofa is a bed then, without any doubt some sofas are not a bed. 

Conversion 

 This section contains 2 stages. We have to first interchange the subject and the assumed subject. We can convert the statements into conclusions according to the below table 

StatementsConclusions
Universal Positive (A)All sofas are a bedOnly Particular Positive (I)Some beds are sofas Some sofas are a bed
Universal Negative (E)No sofas are a bedUniversal Negative (E)No bed is a sofa
Particular Positive (I)Some sofas are a bedOnly Particular Positive (I)Some Bed are sofas
Particular Negative (o)Some sofas are not a bedNo conversion 

This table can also be used in mediate inference as well. There are many chances that a question can be asked based on only conversion. 

Ex- Some Children are not sincere

To the above-given statement some conclusions are given below. Choose which one is the correct 

  1. Some sincere people are not children
  2. All sincere people are not children 
  3. Some sincere people are children 
  4. None of the above

Explanation- so from the reference table above this statement is Particular Positive Statement, so the answer would be c) Some sincere people are children 

Syllogism or Mediate Logical Reasoning 

In this type of reasoning the conclusion is drawn by considering two or more elements separated from the information. Based on what kind of premises are given syllogism can be divided into 4 other types as 

Categorial 

The relationship between the subject and the premises given is not conditioned. 

Ex- All Cars are trains

 All parrots are birds

Hypothetical 

The relationship between the subject and premises is stated conditionally. 

Ex- If she ran out of time she won’t go to the movie. 

Disjunctive

In this type the statements are altered. 

Ex- She is either scared or she is dumb 

Relational 

Here there will be a relation between the given statements. 

Ex- p>q>r>s

Then, q>s (conclusion)

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Inductive Logical Reasoning

This is the quickest way of reasoning. Because here the conclusions are made upon the generalized opinion. Like, our own experience, by our observation of things, or witnessing the recurrent instances make us have some general opinion. For example, from all the years we lived we witnessed innumerous times that a cat, or a lion or a monkey drinking water. So in this inductive reasoning way by this experience, you can say that all animals must drink water in order to survive. But to actually think, have we witnessed each and every animal drinking water? Definitely not. So this reasoning may not be 100% true. But it is the fastest way. Then how can we conclude that we saw animals drinking water and we also know that from basic biology every animal needs to drink water. Hence Inductive reasoning is Synthesis and Deductive reasoning is analytical. 

Analytical Reasoning

Analytical Reasoning means you consider every component of a given statement and think over it and question it so that you can come to the best possible conclusion without any tiny mistake. In this reasoning, there is space for readers’ point of view so that’s why it sometimes becomes subjective. In this analytical reasoning questions are asked in the form of arguments, inferences, conclusions. Statements are given in sentences or a group of sentences, small arguments on the given paragraph, facts, theories, and figures. To solve these problems one must understand the nature of questions. 

Nature of Questions

  • Assumptions and statements 
  • Force of Argument
  • Assertion and Reasoning
  • Statements and Course of Action 

Assumptions and Statement Analytical Reasoning 

Assumptions means the unsaid, unknown statements but they are based on some or arguments or theories which might be proven or unproven. So, the assumption can be considered as an implied premise. By the name itself, we can say that assumption means something which is assumed, supposed, or taken for granted. Like, there are many assumptions regarding the old customs, they might be assumed or they are supposed that way, and sometimes we take them for granted. In this life, there are many things that we do not say or we can’t put into words but we surely take them for granted. For example The existence of God, some can’t say that some can’t put them into words. These are considered assumptions. Implicit means hidden; so implicit assumptions mean the assumptions which are hidden.Let’s understand this with the example.

Examples

Below there are two statements I) II) which are assumptions. Read them properly and decide which of the following options are implicit in the statement. 

1) Only assumption I is implicit 

2) Only assumption II is implicit

3) Both I and II are implicit

4) Neither I nor II are implicit 

Example 1 –

Statement: P said to Q “ If you want to win the game you have to take training from the expert” 

Assumptions:

  1. Q took advice from P.
  2. Experts have the capability to train you to win the game. 

Explanation:

Implicit means hidden, it is not hidden that P is advising Q, hence I) is not hidden. 

But Experts have the capability to train you to win the game, this is the statement that is hidden and we are all supposed to believe this assumption, hence in this case II) is implicit.

Example 2 –

Statement: Out of all the channels in India StarPlus has the highest viewership 

Assumptions:

I. We know the volume of viewership who watch Television

II. there is no other channel in India that has higher viewership than StarPlus

Explanation: 

If we know how many people watch Starplus then we know the whole population who watch television this information is hidden hence we can consider I) is implicit.

But there is no way we can say that Only StarPlus has the highest viewership. 

Force Of Arguments 

 Arguments means they contain one or more premises that lead to a conclusion. We can consider the given argument true only when the premises are true. If there is any false information in any of the given premises then the argument is believed to be false. If the premises are correct and true then the conclusion is also correct.

Example: 

Premise 1: all sportspeople are fit

Premise 2: Amaresh is a sportsperson 

Conclusion: So, Amaresh is fit. 

This is valid because sportspeople are fit, if Amaresh is a sportsperson he is fit.

Example-

Premise 1: all sportspeople are fit

Premise 2: Amaresh is fit 

Conclusion: So, Amaresh is a sportsperson.

This is not valid because there is no such statement that says all the fit people are sportspeople. 

Assertion And Reasoning

In this section assertion and reasoning are given. Assertion means some statements and reasons are given to the statement. One must first read the assertion statement carefully and then read reason carefully, then one should see if the given reason is suitable to the assertion meticulously. There are options for each possible outcome and answer the question correctly as shown in the example. 

A) A is right but B is wrong

B) A is wrong but B is right

C) A and B both are right but B is not the correct explanation to A

D) A and B both are right and B is the right explanation to A

Example

Assertion(A): Prominent ancient civilizations grew near rivers. 

Reason (R): Rivers provide water for irrigation.

Explanation: 

We all know that civilizations grew near river banks. And it is also true that one of the reason for that is irrigation hence option D is correct 

Example

Assertion (A): Mercury is the brightest planet in our solar system 

Reason (R): Moon is the natural satellite of earth 

Explanation

Here A is wrong because the brightest planet in our solar system is Venus. And R is right so option B) is correct

Statements And Courses Of Action 

Course of action is taking action against something. It might be an administrative action or solution to a problem or looking after a policy. In this section, aspirants are expected to consider the given situation or statements are true thereafter select the right option of course of action. Read the situation carefully and decide which course of action would be the right solution.

Example- 

Situation: In the past several days its been raining continuously hence it created the problem of the flood; this is because of the silt and mud in the river

Course of Action: 

  1. Transferring the people who live near the river to a safer place 
  2. Informing people regarding the situation over TV or radio 
  3. Removing the mud and silt from the river immediately after the reduction of the water level

a) follow 1 and 2 

b) follow 2 and 3

c) None of the above

d) All of the above

Explanation

Option a) is correct because 1 and 2 are the actions which are supposed to happen urgently

Explanation

Situation

In a class of a sincere and hardworking teacher two students interrupt and disturb him during class. And He is exhausted from their behavior. 

 Course of Action:

  1. He should warn the class that if they continue to behave so he won’t take the class for them
  2. He should suspend the students considering the whole class
  3. The teacher should talk to the students and understand why they are behaving so and what he can do about them
  4. The teacher should complain to the principal and report to take strong against them

Explanation

Option 3 is correct because it is focused on the long-term solution to the problem. 

Conclusion 

Reasoning is thinking in a way that you consider all the known facts before coming to any conclusion. There are many types of reasoning but mainly Logical and Analytical reasoning are important. Reasoning is a very vast subject. Humans are the only animals that are capable of thinking correctly. We respond to the situations, experiences, and instances that happen around us and we come to some conclusions and generalizations which define our thoughts and us. The reasoning is nothing but thinking straightly, to come to any conclusion you need to apply that basic knowledge you have which we call logical reasoning. And to make even the best conclusions we try analytical reasoning by challenging our thinking ability.

FAQs

Q: What is Logical Reasoning?

A: Logical Reasoning is nothing but applying basic knowledge or logic to a given instance to reach the conclusion. 

Q: What is Analytical Reasoning?

A: To have a more accurate approach to the conclusion, the statements are separated into elements and each element is considered and questioned. 

Q: Questions on Logical and analytical reasoning will appear in KAS and PSI exams?

A: Yes. Questions on Logical and Analytical reasoning are asked in KAS and PSI in Paper-II