President of India | List, Functions, Powers & Supply

The President is the head of the Indian State. He is the first citizen of India and acts as the symbol of unity, integrity, and solidarity of the nation. 

The office of the President is created by Article 52 in Part V of the constitution.

The President is the formal head of the executive, legislature, and judiciary of India and is also the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.

The President must be a citizen of India, older than 35 years of age, and qualified for election as a member of the Lok Sabha. The President’s term of office is five years, and he is eligible for re-election. His removal from office must be in accordance with the procedure prescribed in Article 61 of the Constitution. He may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Vice-President, resign from his office.

Powers and Functions of the President 

The President of India is the head of the state by the power derived from Article 53. The functions performed and the powers given to the President can be categorized into the following :

  1. Executive Power
  2. Legislative Power
  3. Financial Power
  4. Judicial Power
  5. Diplomatic Power
  6. Military Power
  7. Emergency Power
  8. Ordinance Making Power
  1. Executive Power of President
  • All executive actions of the Indian Government are formally taken in the President’s name.
  • The President can make the rules to simplify the business transaction of the Central Government.
  • The President appoints the following people :
    • Prime Minister and council of ministers on the recommendation of the Prime minister
    • Attorney General of India and also decides his remuneration
    • Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG)
    • Chief Election Commissioner and other Election Commissioners
    • Chairman and members of Union Public Service Commission (UPSC)
    • Governors of states
    • Chairman and members of Finance Commission of India 
  • He appoints the National commission of :
    • Schedule Caste (SC)
    • Schedule Tribe (ST)
    • Other Backward Class (OBC)
  • The President also appoints the inter- state councils .
  • The President can declare any area as a Scheduled area and he also has the power to respect the administration of Schedule area and tribal areas.
  • The President can seek reports from the Prime minister on administrative matters.
  • He directly administers the union territories through administrators appointed by him.
  1. Legislative Powers of President
  • The President can summon the Parliament and can also dissolve the Lok Sabha.
  • He addresses the Parliament’s First session after every General Election.
  • He appoints the : 
    • Speaker and Deputy Speaker of Lok Sabha
    • Chairman and Deputy Chairman of Rajya Sabha
  • He also nominates :
    • 2 Anglo-Indian members of Lok Sabha
    • 12 members of Rajya Sabha
  • Prior recommendation of the President is needed to introduce certain bills including money bill & finance bill.
  • A bill passed by the parliament becomes an act only after the president has given assent to it. The President has veto power over the bills passed by the legislature.
  1. Financial Power of President
  • Prior recommendation of the President is a must for introducing money bills.
  • He causes the Union Budget to be laid before the Parliament.
  • President recommendation is a prerequisite to make a demand for grants.
  • The contingency fund of the Union government is held in the name of the President of India, who releases the funds on request of the Union Cabinet.
  • The President constitutes the Finance Commission every 5 years.
  1. Judicial Power of President
  • The President appoints Chief Justice,  judges of the Supreme Court and High Court.
  • Under Article 72, the President has the power to grant pardon, reprieve, respite or remission in the following conditions :
    • Punishment is for an offence against Union law
    • Punishment is by a military court
    • A sentence that is of death
  •  He also has the power to suspend, remit or commute the sentence in such cases.
  1. Diplomatic Power of President 
  • International Treaties, and agreements approved by Parliament are negotiated and concluded in the President’s name.
  • The President is the Representative of India in International Forums and Affairs.
  1. Military Power of President
  • The President is the Commander of the Defence Forces of India.
  • He appoints the chief of the Army, Navy and Airforce.
  • He can declare war or conclude peace, with approval  of the Parliament.
  1. Emergency Powers of President of India

The President of India has the power to deal with three types of Emergency given in the Indian   Constitution :

  1. National Emergency under Article 352
  2. President’s Rule under Article 356 & 365
  3. Financial Emergency  under Article 360

       8.    Ordinance Making Power of President

  • Article 123 of Indian Constitution deals with Ordinance making power of the President. 
  • The President promulgates an ordinance to deal with unforeseen or urgent matters, on the recommendation of the union cabinet.

Salary of the President 

The salary of the President of India is Rs. 5 lakh/month (non-taxable). Apart from this, the President of India also gets several allowances in the form of accommodation, medical facilities, and security.

List of Presidents of India from 1947 to 2021

S. noNAMEPERIOD
01Rajendra Prasad26 Jan 1950 – 13 May 1962
02Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan13 May 1962 – 13 May 1967
03Zakir Hussain13 May 1967 – 3 May 1969
04V. V. Giri ( Acting )3 May 1969 – 20 July 1969
05Muhammad Hidayatullah ( Acting )20 July 1969 – 24 Aug 1969
06V. V. Giri24 Aug 1969 – 24 Aug 1974
07Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed24 Aug 1974 – 11 Feb 1977
08B.D. Jatti ( Acting )11 Feb 1977 – 25 July 1977
09Neelam Sanjiva Reddy 25 July 1977 – 25 July 1982
10Giani Zail Singh25 July 1982 – 25 July 1987
11Ramaswamy Venkataraman25 July 1987 – 25 July 1992
12Shankar Dayal Sharma25 July 1992 – 25 July 1997
13K. R. Narayanan25 July 1997 – 25 July 2002
14A.P.J Abdul Kalam25 July 2002 – 25 July 2007
15Pratibha Patil25 July 2007 – 25 July 2012
16Pranab Mukherjee25 July 2012 – 17 July 2017
17Ram Nath Kovind25 July 2017 – Present

Sample questions :

  1. The President can dismiss a member of the council of Ministers :
  1. With the consent of the speaker
  2. Only under emergency conditions
  3. On the recommendation of the Prime Minister
  4. Upon his own will 

 Answer: C – On the recommendation of the Prime Minister

2.   The President of India is :

  1. The head of the ‘State’
  2. The head of the Government
  3. The head of the state and Government
  4. None of the above 

 Answer: A – The head of the ‘State’

3.  Money bills can be introduced in the Lok Sabha with the prior permission of the :

  1. President
  2. Prime minister
  3. Speaker
  4. Cabinet

Answer: A – President

4.  Who decides a ‘bill’  is a money bill?

  1. Prime minister
  2. Speaker of Lok Sabha
  3. Chairman of Rajya Sabha
  4. President 

Answer: B – Speaker of Lok Sabha

5.  The ministers in the Union Government hold office during the pleasure of the :

  1. Lok Sabha
  2. President
  3. Parliament 
  4. Prime minister

Answer: B – President

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