Principles of Learning [Free Study Notes] – CTET Paper 1&2

According to Crow & Crow, learning is the acquisition of knowledge and an attitude. Principles of learning is an extension of this statement only.

Learning is responsible for the modifications in an individual’s behavior. It is a comprehensive term that leaves a permanent effect.

Human’s learning tendency starts from the day of their birth. Learning is used in 2 terms, learning as a process and learning as a product.

Learning is often also termed as the change in an individual by the knowledge induced due to the new facts.

J.P. Gulliford names learning as a change in behavior resulting from behavior.

Learning Principles – Nature of Learning

The nature of learning can be described on the basis of the below-mentioned points:

  • Learning is a goal-directed activity.
  • learning can also be referred to as the acquisition of a new behavior.
  • It is relatively permanent within an individual.
  • It is also termed as the perceptual recognition of a situation.
  • Learning is the change in behavior as a result of experience.

What are the characteristics of the Learning principle?

The main characteristics of the Principles of Learning could be mentioned as follows:

  • Learning Principles help to motivate the learners.
  • These are the cause of progressive change in one’s behavior.
  • It provides the help to adjust within a different environment.
  • It helps a teacher to choose the appropriate teaching strategy for teaching the learning process.
  • Learning is a process as well as product, but learning principles are only processes which help an individual modify their behavior.

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Basic Theories On Principles Of Learning

Many major psychologists have shared their views on the learning principle. Here we are sharing the most important ones of them;

B.F. Skinner propounded the Theory of Operant Conditioning of Learning

Its educational implications are as follows:

  • Try to ignore or do not strengthen the bad behavior of the students.
  • Desired behavior should be immediately reinforced by the parents or the teachers.
  • This theory is very useful for developing programmed instructional material and systematic approach of teaching machines/aids.

Ivan P. Pavlov suggested the Theory of Classical Conditioning

  • It emphasizes the principles of association.
  • Language can be learnt with the help of conditioning.
  • The theory of rewards and punishments is also based on conditioning.
  • Positive attitudes, self-beliefs, sentiments, and habits can be formed and developed with the help of conditioning.
  • This theory impacts a child’s ability to learn at an early stage.
  • It is also useful for adjustments with the environment.

Thorndike proposed the Theory of Trial & Error

This theory is often referred to with few other names like Stimulus-Response (S-R)Theory, Pleasure-Pain Theory and Bond Theory of Learning.

  • Habit formation depends upon the trial and error method.
  • More & more practice & repetitions are required for effective learning.
  • This theory lays emphasis on experimental verification. The teacher should make use of experiments to aid the learning process and should promote learning by doing.
  • Motivation is extremely important for learning. Students must be motivated to take up the learning by themselves.
  • This theory also represents a task by grading it from simple to complex.

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What are the factors affecting the Principles of Learning? 

There are a few main factors that affect the learning process of an individual:

  • Student-related Factors;
    1. Age & maturity of students
    2. Physical and mental health of students.
    3. Level of motivation provided to students.
    4. Intelligence, aptitude, attitude, interest and attention fo students.
  • Teacher-related Factors;
    1. Personality of the Teacher
    2. Teaching principles of teacher.
    3. Knowledge and skills.
    4. Behavior of teachers towards students.
  • Curriculum-related factors;
    1. Nature of subject matter.
    2. Organization of subject matter.
    3. Difficulty level fi subject matter.
    4. Relation of subject matter to life.
  • Factors-related to Teaching Methods;
    1. Practice & Application.
    2. Suitability of teaching method.
    3. Use of co-curricular activities.
    4. Use of teaching aids and technology.
  • Environment-related factors;
    1. Social Environment.
    2. Natural Environment.
    3. Time of teaching and learning.
    4. Fatigue of students due to the school timetable.

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What Are the Various Forms of Learning?

The various forms of learning is distributed into 4 parts:

Conceptual Learning:

This learning implies that an individual starts their thinking in an abstract term. An object is perceived as itself without being in its concrete form.

These abstract concepts gradually multiply and become a part of mental makeup.

Appreciative Learning:

At this level, ideals, attitude and mental dispositions, which are related to the feeling of mind, come in to play.

A child starts attaching some worthwhile values to the knowledge that he/she has acquired.

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Perceptual Learning:

This form of learning involves what an individual perceives through hi/her senses about various objects of the world.

The individual tries to distinguish between them. They start attaching a meaning to them on the basis of his/her past experience.

The individuals learning is confined to the presentations pf the concrete object.

Associative Learning:

A child keeps a mental image of their past experience. They then try to relate the new experience with their previous image.

This affects a child’s perception of the new experience as a mere upgrade of their past image/experience of an incident.

Teaching is often referred to as an ‘Art’. There are specific teaching methods that instruct a teacher about the art of ‘How to Teach’?

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That brings us to the end of this article on Principles of Learning. We hope that the study notes provided here proves useful to your EVS exam preparations for CTET paper 1.

Principles of learning is an important topic under EVS and questions have been raised from this topic in the past. Go through the topic details and familiarise yourself with the concepts.

To get a clear idea of what CTET exam will be like and practice for the same, you can enroll for the CTET mock tests on Oliveboard. All the best for your preparations.

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