Teaching Methods in Science Pedagogy: CTET 2020 Exam Preparation

With the entrance exams only two months away, CTET preparations are in full swing. Like every year, the Central Teacher Eligibility Test exams will be held in December across the country. Through the entrance examination, eligible candidates will be recruited as teachers in various schools. Lakhs of aspirants look forward to crack the exam and land a job since it is one of the most sought-after career options. However, only a few are able to obtain the required cut-off.  To help you score well above the minimum cut-off, we are here to provide you with some good study notes and materials. One important topic that features in the Science Pedagogy section of the exam paper is ‘Teaching Methods’. Read on to know more about the concept and ways of teaching.

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Science Pedagogy Teaching Methods

What is Science Pedagogy?

Pedagogy refers to the teaching profession as well as the science of education. Your choice of teaching method is based on what suits you – classroom demographic, educational philosophy, and subject areas. 

The word ‘method’ is derived from the Latin word, meaning way or mode. In this context, the technique using which a teacher transmits scientific skills and delivers knowledge to students, its application and comprehension is known as the process of learning science or Science Pedagogy.

Some of the teaching methods in Science Pedagogy include the following –

Lecture Method

The oldest and the most popular of all methods taught in schools is the lecture method. Lecture simply means teaching someone a lesson through talking or a speech. 

Merits –

  • It is an extremely efficient method if the teacher has a logical and systematic manner. 
  • It is comfortable and convenient. The teacher is allowed to develop a style of teaching.
  • Students can prepare notes by listening to the lecture – it is, therefore, time-saving and energy-saving.

 

Demerits – 

  • Students are usually inactive
  • Lesser participation and involvement on the part of the student

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Demonstration Method

Demonstration simply means ‘to show’. Demonstration experiments offer the students a concrete experience. The method includes the use of slides, films, and projectors. The teacher makes a theoretical investigation and proves his/her point in front of the class.

Merits – 

  • Both students and teachers are active
  • The method is less time-taking and economical
  • Students learn to think, reason, and observe

Demerits – 

  • Not all students get a chance to experiment
  • The method is not based on the principle of learning by doing
  • Through this method, children do not develop an analytical attitude

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Laboratory Method

To make the teaching of science more effective, meaningful, clear and interesting, it is important to provide all an opportunity to learn by doing rather than simply teaching. The laboratory method follows the principle of ‘learning by doing’. Students are provided with all necessary equipment and materials in a laboratory setting along with appropriate instruments for conducting experiments with much effort and initiative. They record the observations of the experiment and infer the results. A teacher is always there to guide them whenever needed.

Merits –

  • Students get to learn practical skills and become proficient in handling scientific equipment and apparatus.
  • It helps one to develop the habit of reasoning, thinking, and problem-solving
  • The method is a child-centered approach to learning
  • The method strengthens the scientific outlook, attitude, and temper
  • The method lays the ground for experimentation, verification, and exploration of scientific principles and facts.

Demerits – 

  • Much expensive than the other teaching methods
  • Extremely time-consuming
  • Not all teachers are able to use the method effectively
  • The method has limited applicability

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Heuristic Method

The heuristic method refers to a process that leads students to find out the truth by themselves through independent thinking. The method demands that students take a moment to think, discuss, and propose modifications for further experiments. The teacher plays the role of a facilitator or a guide – he/she helps the child overcome difficulties all by themselves.

Merits –

  • Prompts a spirit of enquiry in children
  • Students actively participate in the process of learning
  • Promotes the habit of self-dependence, self-study, etc.
  • The knowledge acquired is more stable
  • The observation power and thinking abilities of the student are enhanced

Demerits –

  • It is difficult to teach minor children through this method
  • The method demands special preparation and extraordinary labor from the teacher
  • The method is expensive and time-consuming
  • It is not an appropriate method for a class having a large number of students since the teacher is required to direct individual attention to each of the students.

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Observation Method 

Students acquire knowledge by observing through the observation method. Students can see the nature and the surroundings through observation if they listen carefully and look closely.

Merits –

  • Helps forge a healthy and intimate student-teacher relationship
  • Students understand and observe the dissimilarities and similarities between objects efficiently and clearly
  • Students become confident, self-reliant, and self-dependent

Demerits –

  • The method is not practicable
  • Might involve language and cultural barrier
  • The process of data collection is difficult

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Project Method

This method involves investigating and discovering something completely new. The students decide which experiments are important and how they need to be carried out. The student acts as a scientist – he/she tries to find a solution to the problem posed to him/her. 

Merits –

  • Students actively participate in the project
  • Students learn to become more patient, content, and satisfied
  • The method follows the principle of ‘learning by doing’
  • Students are able to form a relationship between the different subjects

Demerits –

  • The method is expensive and time-consuming
  • It is not possible to cover the entire syllabus through this particular method
  • Learning and teaching through the method become irregular, discontinuous, and disorganized

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Problem-solving Method

This particular method results from necessity. The problem needs to be posed clearly in front of the students, based on his/her ability to understand the problem. Students are asked to analyze and synthesize the problem with assistance from the teacher and try to come up with a solution.

Merits –

  • Students are able to find a solution to problems on their own
  • Students develop the power to observe and argue
  • They get an opportunity to learn about the process of data collection, evaluation, and drawing the inference. 

Demerits –

  • The method is both energy and time consuming
  • It is not a suitable method for students in lower grades
  • The method is only beneficial for highly qualified teachers and students

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Having a comprehensive understanding of ‘Teaching Methods’ can help you score well in the Science Pedagogy section. To ace your preparation, you can sit for the CTET mock tests online on Oliveboard. Go through the CTET study materials available on our website and make sure you have covered each and every point that is relevant to the syllabus. 

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