Marketing Notes for DFCCIL | Types of Customers & Products

As per the exam pattern of DFCCIL, the CBT will have 6 questions on the marketing topic. So, if you want to score full marks in marketing, you need to prepare well. We have included Marketing Notes for DFCCIL in this guide that will surely help you get a good score in the exam. We have covered almost all topics and advise you to practice previous year’s papers to clear all your understanding of concepts. 

DFCCIL Marketing Notes

Read further to learn about leading concepts through our Marketing Notes for DFCCIL.

What is the market? 

The market is any place or arrangement that allows sellers and buyers to exchange goods, services, or information. It promotes trade and facilitates the distribution of resources in a society.

Types of the market: 

Based on place 

  1. Local
  2. National
  3. International

Based on time 

  1. Very short period market
  2. Short period market
  3. Long-period market
  4. Very long period market

Based on competition 

  1. Perfectly competitive 
  2. Imperfectly competitive 
  • Monopoly
  • Duopoly
  • Oligopoly
  • Monopolistic

Based on product 

1. Consumer Market: It is the market where consumers buy products and services for themselves or family use.


(a) Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG): Biscuits, detergents, soaps, newspapers, etc. 

(b) Consumer durables: Freeze, computers, TV, laptops, motorbikes, etc. 

(c) Softgoods: Clothes, specs, shoes, bags, etc. 

(d) Services: Insurance, beauty parlours, medical, etc.

2. Industrial Market: It is the market that is intended majorly for businesses. 

Example: accountancy, security services, legal advice, waste disposal services, etc.

What is marketing? 

Marketing is the process in which a set of institutions, individuals, or organizations communicate and deliver value to customers, clients, partners, or society at large. The primary function of marketing is to connect the consumers to the marketer through significant information. Here, the information focuses on the issues regarding all aspects of the product. Products can be anything from tangible or intangible.

What is the difference between marketing and selling? 

In selling, the primary motive remains the maximization of profit (with or without a value). But in marketing, value remains a major factor along with profit. Hence, marketing is an integrated effort to discover, build, establish and satisfy customer’s values. In other words, selling only transforms the goods into money, while marketing serves and satisfies customer needs.

Steps of Marketing

  • Creating a customer database
  • Identifying the potential customers and fetching their details
  • Connecting with these customers through different channels
  • Maintaining a relationship with regular engagement
  • Maintaining the marketing network and consistent business
  • Creating your brand’s value
  • Addressing the customer’s grievances

Types of Marketing:

  • Niche Marketing
  • Relationship Marketing

What is Niche Marketing? 

Niche marketing targets a narrowly defined customer group. It majorly focuses on a particular segment of customers that have unique and similar needs. This technique of marketing is like mass marketing. The market in which this type of marketing technique is applied is called the niche market.

Example: Internet-based marketing, etc. 

What is Relationship Marketing?

 Relationship Marketing involves creating and maintaining strong bonds with customers and other parties such as suppliers, dealers, contractors, stakeholders, shareholders, employees. Its primary objective is to create, maintain, and improve the customer base through a long-term and satisfying relationship. It includes Partner Relationship Management and Customer Relationship Management (CRM). In Relationship Management, the seller continuously impresses the customers through its services and builds great loyalty.

 Advantages of Relationship Marketing

  • Uniformity of business within the marketing network
  • Long-term brand recognition
  • Quick redressal of customer grievances


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7 Ps of marketing

  • Product
  • Price
  • Promotion
  • Place
  • People
  • Process
  • Physical evidence 

Direct Marketing

When a manufacturer sells its products or services directly to the last customer, it is called direct marketing. We also know it as zero level channel. 

Example: door-to-door sales, Internet selling, etc.

Viral Marketing

It is the process of making services or goods famous through word of mouth. It is one of the best ways to make anything popular without spending much on marketing.

Who is a customer? 

The customer receives a good, service, or information from a seller, vendor, or supplier in return for money or other valuable things.

Types of Customers: 

(a) Intermediate Customer: Who purchases goods for resale.

(b) Ultimate Customer: Real consumers.

What is a product?

A product is anything offered in a market to satisfy a need or want. Here, need or want may differ in different situations. For example, if a product ‘tea’ is sold in a market, it satisfies the cravings of a person and maximises the profit of the company selling the tea.

Types of Products:

1. Tangible

2. Intangible

3. Branded

4. Unbranded.


The Dedicated Freight Corridor Corporation of India (DFCCIL) has released the vacancies for Executive and Junior Executive posts in the Operation & BD department and other disciplines. It has released a notification regarding these posts on its official website As thousands of aspirants have applied for these posts, you need to prepare hard to ace the exam. We have included a major part of the marketing section in the above DFCCIL Marketing Notes to help you in preparation. We also advise you to refer to some good reference books and practice previous year’s papers and online mock tests to clear all your concepts.

What is the selection process for DFCCIL Exam 2021?

Ans. The selection process of DFCCIL Exam 2021 involves 4 stages:
Computer-Based Test (CBT)
Document Verification
Medical Test
For Executive posts, candidates have to appear for an additional Computer-Based Aptitude Test (CBAT).

How many seats are there for Executive and Junior Executive Officers in DFCCIL’s Operations & BD department?

There are 237 vacancies for Executive and 225 vacancies for Junior Executive posts in DFCCIL’s Operation & BD Department.

How to prepare for the marketing section in DFCCIL Exam 2021?

You may refer to our Marketing Notes for DFCCIL to prepare for this section. Along with that, you may prepare using reference books, previous year’s question papers, and online mock tests. 

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