The NABARD Grade A Exam has 40 marks allocated to the Subject of Agriculture and Rural Development. This includes topics like, Agriculture, Crops, Types of Soils in India For the NABARD Exam, schemes for rural development, etc. To achieve success in the NABARD Grade A exam a thorough preparation of the Agriculture and Rural Development subject is a must. We have therefore brought to you this article which covers one of the important Topics – Types of Soils in India for the NABARD Grade A exam.
Types of Soils in India For NABARD Grade A Exam
1) Black (Regur Soils)
- These types of Soils are mainly found in the Deccan plateau – Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, and Valleys of Krishna and Godavari rivers.
- These soils are formed by sedimentation of volcanic rocks and Lava flow.
- These soils are rich in minerals like Potassium, Magnesium, Lime and Iron.
- Phosphorous, Nitrogen and Organic matter are deficient in Black soils.
- These soils are suitable for growing crops like Sugarcane, Jowar, Cotton, tobacco, wheat, rice, etc.
2) Alluvial Soils
- These types of Soils are mainly found in Great Northern plains like states of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Jharkhand and in Lower valleys of Narmada and Tapi rivers.
- They are formed by the deposition of river sediments into the plains.
- They are rich in humus content hence are very fertile.
- These soils get renewed every year.
- They are also rich in minerals like Potassium and Lime.
- They are deficient in Nitrogen and Phosphorous content.
- Crops such as wheat, rice, sugarcane, jute, cotton are grown in these types of soils.
3) Red Soils
- These soils are found in the whole of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Konkan region of Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, and parts of Orissa.
- These are formed by sedimentation of old metamorphic rocks.
- The red colour is because of the Iron content in these soils. If Iron content is lower, then it is also green or yellow coloured.
- These are rich in Iron and Potassium.
- Humus, Nitrogen and phosphorous are deficient in these soils.
- These soils are suitable for growing pulses, wheat, rice, sugarcane, etc.
4) Laterite Soils
- These soils are present in the states of Kerala, Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh Tamil Nadu, and hilly areas of Orissa and Assam.
- This type of Soil formation is because of the high-intensity leaching.
- They are rich in Iron Oxide and Potash.
- Organic matter, phosphate, calcium and Nitrogen are deficient.
- These are suitable for growing crops like Cashew nuts, Tea, Coffee, Rubber, etc.
5) Forest and Mountain Soils:
- These types of soils are found in hilly regions covered with forests like Himalayan slopes, valleys and on higher hills of the southern peninsula.
- They are formed due to the deposition of organic matter derived out of forest growth.
- These are generally brown coloured soils
- They are deficient in lime, phosphorous and potassium but are very rich in Humus content
- These are suitable for the growing of Tea, Coffee, Spices, and Tropical fruits
6) Arid and Desert Soils
- These soils are present in the arid and semi-arid regions of Rajasthan, Punjab and Haryana.
- Sand cover in these regions inhibits the soil growth
- The high presence of phosphate and nitrates makes these soils fertile, but only in the areas where moisture (rainfall) is present.
- Drought resistant and Salt tolerant crops like millet, maize, barley, cotton and pulses can be grown in these soils.
7) Saline and Alkaline Soils
- These soils are found in drier regions of Haryana, UP, Punjab, Bihar, Rajasthan and Maharashtra.
- They are formed because of the deposition of salts transported by rivers, which percolates to the subsoils of the plains.
- These types of Soils are infertile due to high quantities of Salt content.
- The infertility of the soil makes it unfit for agriculture.
We hope this article proves useful for NABARD Grade-A exam preparation.
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