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Types of Agriculture in India – NABARD Agriculture Notes

Types of Agriculture in India - NABARD Agriculture Notes

The Phase 1 of the NABARD Grade A and Grade B Exams is scheduled on 15th and 16th of June 2019 and we at Oliveboard are here to help you in your preparations for the same. Both Phase 1 and Phase 2 of NABARD Exam tests the aspirants on the subject of Agriculture and Rural Development. One of the topics in the syllabus is Types of Agriculture in India. So, therefore in this blog we will be providing you notes on the topic of Types of Agriculture in India – NABARD Agriculture Notes. Read and revise it carefully so that you not miss out on any marks in the upcoming NABARD Exam 2019.

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Types of Agriculture in India – NABARD Agriculture Notes

1. Farming

1. Subsistence Farming

  • This is one of the most popular farming techniques seen in various parts of the country.
  • The farmer along with his family cultivates grains for family consumption or for sale in the local market.
  • The entire family works on the farm and most of the agricultural work is done manually here.
  • Landholdings are small and fragmented.
  • Cultivation techniques are primitive, simple and there is a total absence of modern equipments like tractors and farm inputs like chemical fertilizers, insecticides and pesticides.
  • Traditional methods of farming are followed by the farmers in their small farms.
  • Since facilities like electricity and irrigation are generally not available to the poor farmers, they do not use fertilizers and high yielding variety of seeds in their fields to the extent they should do. 
  • In this farming, farmers mostly cultivate cereals along with oil seeds, pulses, vegetables and sugarcane.

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2.  Shifting Agriculture

  • In this type of agriculture, a piece of forest land is cleared by felling trees and burning of trunks and branches.
  • After the land is cleared, crops are grown for two to three years and then the land is abandoned as the soil loses its fertility.
  • The farmers then move to new areas and the process is repeated.
  • It is practiced mainly by tribal living in forest.
  • The commonly grown crops are dry paddy, maize, millets and vegetables in this type of farming.
  • But since it causes extensive soil erosion, governments have tried to discourage this practice of cultivation by tribals.
  • This practice is known by different name in different regions of India. For example, it is called Jhum in Assam, Ponam in Kerala, Podu in AP and Odisha, Bewar, masha, penda, and bera in MP. 

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3. Intensive Agriculture

  • Intensive farming aims at maximum possible production on the limited farms with all efforts possible under the circumstances.
  • Intensive farming is capable of raising more than one crop in a year.
  • Huge capital and human labour is employed in every hectare of land.
  • In areas where irrigation facilities are available, the farmers use fertilizers and pesticides on large scale to bring their land under high yielding variety of seeds.
  • It is also known as industrial agriculture. It involves higher use of inputs such as capital and labor per unit land area. This is where it differs from traditional agriculture where the inputs per unit land are lower.
  • Intensive Farming records high production per unit of land.

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4. Extensive Agriculture

  • It is the modern system of farming done on large farms lands. When a large patch of land is used for cultivation then we call it extensive farming.
  • It is also known as mechanical farming due to extensive use of machines.
  • In Extensive farming, only one crop is raised per year.
  • Employment of labour and capital per hectare of land is comparatively less.
  • It is practiced in sparsely populated areas like USA, Canada, Russia and Australia.
  • India does not practise extensive cultivation.
  • Total production may be high due to larger area but per unit production is low.

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5. Plantation Farming

  • It is a form of industrialized agriculture, single crop farming involving large monocultures such as rubber, tea, coffee, cocoa, spices, coconut and fruit crops like apples, grapes, oranges, etc.
  • This type of agriculture involves growing and processing of a single cash crop purely meant for sale.
  • It is capital intensive and demands good managerial ability, technical know-how, sophisticated machinery, fertilisers, irrigation, and transport facilities.
  • Plantation agriculture is an export-oriented agriculture. Most of the crops grown in plantation agriculture have a life cycle of more than two years.
  • Plantation agriculture is confined within tropical areas, i.e., both sides of the equator.Plantations exist on every continent possessing a tropical climate.
  • In India, it is practiced in Kerala, Karnataka, Assam and Maharashtra.

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6. Mixed Farming

  • Mixed farming is a type of farming which involves both the growing of crops as well as the raising of livestock.
  • Cultivation of crops along with rearing of animals for meat or milk is called Mixed Farming. For example, the same farm may grow cereal crops, and keep cattle, sheep, pigs or poultry.
  • Farmers engaged in mixed farming are economically better off than others.
  • All classifications are based on nature and purpose of farming. It may overlap. For example: Banana is a plantation type of farming. It can also be classified as commercial farming.

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7. Dry Land Farming

  • It is method of farming in semi-arid areas without the aid of irrigation, using drought-resistant crops and conserving moisture.
  • In this type of farming, moisture is maintained by raising special type of crops.
  • Gramjowar, bajra and peas are such crops which need less water.
  • This is practiced in dry areas of the country such as western, north-western India and central India.
  • Dryland agriculture is important for the economy as most of the coarse grain crops, pulses, oilseeds, and raw cotton are grown on these lands. Dryland areas receive rainfall between 500 and 1200 mm.

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8. Wet Land Farming

  • This type of farming depends mainly on rains that is why it is practiced in high rainfall and well irrigated areas.
  • In this type of farming rice, jute and sugarcane are grown.
  • This farming is prevalent in the north, north-eastern India and on the slopes of the Western Ghats.

On the basis of seasons, crops grown in India can be classified as follows – 

(i) Kharif (June-July to October-November): Kharif crops are grown with the start of monsoon till the beginning of winter  The major Kharif crops are Rice, maize, millets, cotton, groundnut, moong, urad etc. 

(ii) Rabi (October-November to March-April): Rabi crops are sown with the start of winter till the beginning of summer. Major Rabi crops are wheat, barley, gram and oilseeds.

(iii) Zaid: They grow in the short duration between Rabi and Kharif crop season mainly from March to June. Watermelon, Cucumber, Muskmelon, Bitter Gourd, Pumpkin etc are examples of zaid crops.

2. Horticulture

Horticulture is the growing of flowers, fruits and vegetables, and of plants for ornament and fancy. It is precisely the cultivation, processing, and sale of fruits, nuts, vegetables, ornamental plants and flowers as well as many additional services. It also includes plant conservation, landscape restoration, soil management, landscape and garden design, construction, and maintenance, and arboriculture.

3. Animal Husbandry

It is the branch of agriculture concerned with animals that are raised and reared for meat, fibre, milk, eggs, or other products. It includes day-to-day care, selective breeding and the raising of livestock.

This were the various types of Farming (Agriculture) practiced in India. We hope that you liked the content given in this blog “Types of Agriculture in India – NABARD Agriculture Notes” and would also prove useful to you in your NABARD Exam. Stay tuned to Oliveboard for more such informative and exam relevant study notes.

It is advisable to take up a topic from ESI and ARD and complete it in stipulated time without procrastination. Revision is always very very important when it comes to competitive exams like NABARD. Whenever you learn a new topic, do not forget to revise it. Revision will help you in retention of the basics that you learnt and will aid you in recollecting it on the Exam day. 

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